Natural Resources

July 1, 2009

Columbia-CityThe natural resources of Colombia are varied and extensive with most of its territory and oceans still unexplored. Colombia has one of the largest coal open mine pits in the world in the region of Cerrejon in the Guajira Peninsula. It also has oil rigs and natural gas extraction in the eastern plains. Colombia is the main producer of emeralds and an important participant in gold, silver, iron, salt, platinum and uranium extraction

Biofuels

April 20, 2009

Colombia is discussing current trends and challenges as well as recent international developments in the biofuels sector with the intention of contributing to the development of a sustainable and competitive biofuels strategy for Colombia and the region. Arturo Infante Villarreal is the National Biofuels Coordinator, which is within the Department of National Planning

Tolima

January 16, 2009

Tolima is one of the departments of Colombia. It is situated in central-western part of the country. Its capital is the city of Ibague. Tolima Department, was established in 1861 year with part of the department of Cundinamarca.

Indigenous peoples

December 10, 2008

Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples. Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. 567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country’s total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families.[36] The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish).

Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[35] the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and the Guahibo. Cauca, La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations.

More destinations

October 13, 2008

* Tayrona National Park
* San Andres and Providencia, a group of islands in the Caribbean
* San Augustin – excavations and canyon of the Rio Magdalena, World
* Tierradentro – Ausgabungsstätte with grave chambers of the Paez Indians, World
* Popayan – “White” colonial city
* Leticia – trips into the Amazon region
* Mompox – colonial city
* Guajira – Desert and Indian culture
* Las Lajas – Pilgrimage in Ipiales
* Pasto – Quaint colonial town
* Coffee Zone (Salento, including Nevado Ruiz goals)
* Villa de Leyva – colonial city in the Andes
* Taganga – sport divers and fishermen’s village
* Rodadero – resort hotels with noble
* Nuqui – Pazifikstrandort, rainforest, waterfalls and Walbeobachtungsmöglichkeiten
* Zipaquirá – picturesque colonial city with a unique salt cathedral
* Laguna Guatavita – lagoon in the treasure of El Dorado “is to be located
* Ciudad Perdida – The Missing city of Tayrona Indians

Climate

August 25, 2008

The climate of Colombia is determined by its proximity to the Earth’s Equator predominating a tropical and isothermal climate, presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude; determined by mountain climate, temperature, humidity, and winds; influenced by the trade winds and precipitation which is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Colombia is also affected by the effects of the El Niño and La Niña.

Temperatures generally decrease about 3.5 °F (2 °C) for every 1,000-foot (300-m) increase in altitude above sea level, presenting perpetual snowy peaks to lower hot lands. Rainfall varies by location and is present in two seasons (two dry and two rainy) in Colombia presenting one of the highest rainfalls in the world in the Pacific region. Rainfall in parts of the Guajira Peninsula seldom exceeds 30 in (75 cm) per year. Colombia’s rainy southeast, however, is often drenched by more than 200 in (500 cm) of rain per year. Rainfall in most of the rest of the country runs between these two extremes.

Etymology

June 21, 2008

The word “Colombia” comes from the name of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón in Spanish, Cristoforo Colombo in Italian). It was conceived by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, especially to those territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was then adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819 formed out of the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador).

In 1830, when Venezuela and Ecuador separated, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country: the Republic of New Granada. In 1858 New Granada officially changed its name to the Granadine Confederation, then in 1863 the United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in 1886.

When to Go

May 18, 2008

The most pleasant time to visit Colombia is in the dry season, between December and March or July and August, particularly if you plan on hiking. It also gives visitors a better chance to savor local cultural events, as many festivals and fiestas take place during these times.

Apart from the weather, you might also consider Colombian holiday periods. There are basically three high seasons when Colombians rush to travel: from late December to mid-January, during Semana Santa (Holy Week; March or April), and from mid-June to mid-July. Also take note of three-day weekends, when urban dwellers rush to rural getaways, such as Villa de Leyva; and regional celebrations, such as Carnaval in Barranquilla. During these periods transport gets more crowded, hotels tend to fill up faster and prices may rise, so you’ll have to pre-plan your trip and do more legwork to find somewhere to stay. But you’ll also enjoy more contact with traveling Colombians, whose relaxed, holiday spirit is infectious.

Bogotá

May 8, 2008

Bogotá—officially named Bogotá, D.C. (D.C. for “Distrito Capital”, which means “Capital District”), formerly called Santa Fe de Bogotá, is the capital city of Colombia, as well as the largest and most populous city in the country, with 7,033,914 inhabitants (2007). Bogotá and its metropolitan area, which includes municipalities such as Chía, Cota, Soacha, Cajicá and La Calera, had an estimated population of 8,244,980[1] as of 2007. Bogotá’s altitude makes it the third-highest major city in the world after La Paz and Quito. Also in the way of comparision, the city of Bogota has land area that is larger than New York City, Mexico City, or Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Colombia (IPA: /kəˈlʌmbɪə/) officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: , Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]), is a country located in northwestern South America. Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela[1] and Brazil;[2] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[3] to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Colombia also shares maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic and the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.[4][5]

Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru), with an area more than twice that of France. It also has the third-largest population in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico.[6]

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous tribes which had migrated from North and Central America, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. To the south lay the Inca Empire.[7] The Spanish arrived in 1499, and initiated a period of conquest and colonisation which ultimately led to the creation of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (comprising what is now Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama) with its capital at Bogotá.[8] Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 “Gran Colombia” had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. Modern day Colombia, with Panama, emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.[9] Panama seceded in 1903.

Colombia has a long tradition of constitutional government, and the Conservative and Liberal parties, founded in 1843 and 1848 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. However, tensions between the two have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899-1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Since the 1960s, government forces have been engaged in conflict with left-wing insurgents and illegal right-wing paramilitaries. Fuelled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1990s. However, the insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and in recent years the violence has been decreasing. Insurgents continue attacks against civilians, and large swathes of the countryside remain under guerrilla influence, but the Colombian government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities.[9]

Colombia is a standing middle power[10] with the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico.[6] It is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendents of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonisers, African slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia’s incredibly varied geography. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world